Since the introduction of the roundel on Royal Flying Corps aircraft in 1914 it has undergone various changes and modifications depending on the time period and type of aircraft being used and the role it performed. Whilst appearing in various guises during the First and Second World War after this period there have been less modifications to the roundel. Read about the history of the Royal Air Force roundel from 1914 to present day with images for each one.
Aircraft had been used for military purposes in the years preceding the First World War (1914 - 1918) in small numbers, however when war broke out on the 28th July 1914 aircraft would be used on a wide scale for the first time. This brought a new challenge for pilots and ground forces with the need to identify friendly and hostile aircraft quickly.
It was during the first months of the First World War that this need to identify quickly became a pressing issue as a number of 'friendly fire' incidents occurred. The first solution implemented by the Royal Flying Corps, the precursor to the Royal Air Force, was to paint the Union Jack on the underside of the lower wing. Whilst at low level this was adequate in enabling identification of the aircraft by ground forces, at higher altitude less of the flag was visible leading to misidentification.
The solution to this problem was suggested in a memo on the 29th October 1914 circulated by Major General David Henderson, Commanding Royal Flying Corps, British Army in the Field which was to copy a system used by the Armee de l'air. This was a circle consisting of a red outer ring then white with a blue circle in the middle, the RFC version would have the blue and red reversed. Fourteen days later on the 12th November the roundel was officially introduced for all RFC and Royal Naval Air Service, which would become the Fleet Air Arm, aircraft. This has been the standard roundel ever since.
Detailed below are the various roundels used by the Royal Flying Corps, later the Royal Air Force, since they were introduced during 1914.
First World War Roundels
Union Jack (1914)
The first means of identifying Royal Flying Corps aircraft was using the Union Jack, however this was ceased due to misidentification at high altitude with the German Maltese Cross.
Royal Flying Corps (1914 - 1918)
Copying the idea used by the French Air Service of a national cockade in the form of a roundel on aircraft but reversing the colours used by the French on their aircraft.
Royal Naval Air Service (1914 – 1915)
Used by the RNAS on their aircraft but use of this roundel stopped when it was decided to use the same colours as the Royal Flying Corps.
Modified Royal Naval Air Service (1915)
A blue circle was added to the middle as a short term measure until the RFC roundel could be added to all aircraft.
Royal Flying Corps (1916 – 1918)
Same colours as the RFC (1914 - 1918) roundel but using brighter versions.
Royal Flying Corps with White (1916 – 1918)
After camouflage had been painted onto the aircraft around the outside of the roundel a white line was added.
Night Flying (1916 – 1918)
As aircraft began to operate at night a white ring was added to help with identifying other aircraft in the dark, although in the end this roundel was hardly used.
Inter-War Years Roundels
Night Bomber (1918 - 1938)
As aircraft camouflage changed to help aircraft blend into their surroundings the white and blue night flying roundel used above was changed to remove the white and make blue the prevalent colour with a red circle in the middle.
Royal Air Force (1920 – 1939)
The standard inter war years roundel which was the same as the one used by the Royal Flying Corps between 1916 – 1918.
Camouflaged Surfaces (1938 – 1939)
Painted onto all the camouflaged surfaces of an aircraft until March 1939.
Upperwing (1937 – 1947)
The same design as the night bomber (1918 – 1938) roundel but appearing on top of the wings only.
Second World War Roundels
Early War Modified (1939 – 1941)
The standard inter-war (1920 – 1939) roundel with a yellow ring added to make identification of friendly aircraft easier.
Night Flying (1939 – 1942)
Painted on both bombers that operated at night and night fighters on the fuselage.
Fuselage (1940 – 1942)
The same as the camouflaged surfaces (1937 – 1939) roundel but painted onto the fuselage only until July 1942.
Fuselage and Upperwing (1940 – 1947)
Used on photo-reconnaissance aircraft painted in PRU Blue or 'high altitude' camouflage colours.
Fuselage (1942 – 1947)
Also appeared on the top of the wing, if it was a dark colour, of selected aircraft.
Underwing and Fuselage (1942 – 1947)
Used on aircraft which had light surfaces.
South East Asia Command (1942)
The standard fuselage roundel but with the red inside removed, to avoid confusion with Japanese aircraft, but soon superseded by the next roundel.
South East Asia Command (1942 – 1945)
With Japanese aircraft having red on their aircraft this two-toned blue roundel was introduced for planes being used in the Far East to make distinguishing between friendly and enemy aircraft easier.
Royal Australian Air Force (1942 - 1945)
With a number of Royal Air Force aircraft involved in helping the RAAF defend Australia they also had the same roundel to aid in identification.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (1945)
This was originally selected to be the standard post war roundel but in 1947 the Vice Chief of the Air Staff rejected it.
Royal Air Force (1947 onwards)
The current standard RAF roundel.
V-Force (1955 – 1964)
Used on the three aircraft that made up the RAF's V-Force the Vulcan, Victor and Valiant when they were painted in anti-flash white.
Low Visibility (1970s onwards)
Used since the 1970s for aircraft painted in traditional camouflage design.
Modern (1990 onwards)
With modern aircraft normally painted in a grey colour this low visibility roundel was introduced.
Similar to the Royal Flying Corps (1916 – 1918) roundel with a white outline.
To be used by the Royal Air Force squadrons operating the F-35B Lightning II. This will differ more from previous roundels as it will be built into rather than painted onto the aircraft.