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Gloster Gladiator

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The last bi-plane fighter used by the Royal Air Force, the Gladiator entered service in 1937. Just two years later the type was considered obsolete and was being phased out of service. Despite this during the Second World War the Gloster Gladiator would see action in the French and Norwegian campaigns during 1940. The type was also used by the Finnish Air Force during the 'Winter War'.

Quick Facts
First flight
12th September 1934
Entered service
February 1937
Total built
648

Front view
Gladiator front view photo
Side view
Sorry, no view photo available
Rear view
Sorry, no view photo available

In 1931 the Air Ministry were looking for a replacement for the Bristol Bulldog, despite already ordering the Gloster Gauntlet, and this lead to Specification F.7/80 being issued. This called for a fighter with a minimum speed of 250 mph and armament consisting of four machine-guns. Despite a number of submissions no suitable aircraft was forthcoming so a further order for Gauntlets was placed.

Henry Philip Folland, Gloster's designer, took the Gauntlet design and examined it in detail to see the extent of which its performance could be improved. As a result of the design study the wings were changed to single bay units, with the main spars strengthened and internally sprung landing gear installed. Although studies showed the promise of monoplane fighters the bi-plane design of the Gauntlet was kept for the new aircraft. With the reduction in drag as a result of the changes a 10–15 mph improvement in top speed was expected. The prototype, designated SS.73, was flown on the 12th September 1934 and a top speed of 236 mph was recorded using the Bristol Mercury IV engine. In November 1934 the installation of a Mercury VIS engine saw the top speed increase to 242 mph.

After submitting the new design to the Air Ministry during June 1935 a specification was written around the plane, F.14/35, however this required changes, including an enclosed cockpit and the 830-hp Mercury IX engine being fitted. Three months later an order for 23 aircraft was placed. The 1st July saw the plane's name of Gladiator being announced. July 1936 saw the first order of Gloster Gladiator MK Is being delivered carrying two Vickers guns mounted within the fuselage and two Lewis guns under the wings. Another order was placed, however the second batch had a universal armament mounting under each wing which would accept either Vickers, Lewis or Colt-Browning machine guns. The Colt-Browning was installed in both the wing and fuselage for the majority of aircraft delivered in 1938.

The Gloster Gladiator Mk I entered service with No. 72 Squadron at Church Fenton during February 1937. The Mk I had a top speed of 253 mph, a range of 428 miles, a service ceiling of 32,800 ft and armament of four 0.303-in machine-guns. A little over two years later No. 72, along with other squadrons equipped with the type, were already being re-equipped with either the Supermarine Spitfire or Hawker Hurricane. The RAF also took delivery of the Mk II fitted with a 856-hp Bristol Mercury VIIIA which had specifically been fitted with gun synchronisation gear for the type. With the same armament as the Mk I the Mk II offered a slight improvement in speed, range and service ceiling.

Despite being outdated two Gladiator Squadrons, Nos. 699 and 615, would provide air support as part of the British Expeditionary Force when they were sent to France in September 1939. Against the modern fighters of the Luftwaffe they would suffer heavy losses. No. 46 Squadron would also take the type into action during the Norwegian campaign between April and June 1940. The Gladiator also saw action in the Mediterranean and saw combat against the Fiat CR.32 and Fiat CR.42 bi-planes of the Italian Air Force.

The Gladiator would also be used by a number of Air Forces world wide. The Chinese Nationalist Air Force operated 36 during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and it was whilst serving with the Chinese Nationalist Air Force that the type first saw combat and scored its first aerial victory. This occurred on the 24th February 1938 over a Mitsubishi A5M. The Finnish Air Force used 30 in the 'Winter War' and 'Continuation War' against the Soviet Union during 1940–45. Other operators of the Gladiator included the Air Forces of Belgium, Greece and Norway.

When production of the Gladiator ceased a total of 648 had been built and it would stay in service with the Royal Air Force after their front line service had ended where, until 1944, they were used for communications, liaison and metrological use. A naval variant known as the Sea Gladiator was produced with 60 built and around 40 converted Mk IIs. These were fitted with an arrestor hook, catapult points and dinghy storage.



Variants

Click on the aeroplane image to view a larger version.

Max Speed Range Service Ceiling Armament
Gladiator Mk I 253 mph 428 miles 32,800 ft four 0.303-in machine-guns
Gladiator Mk II 257 mph 440 miles 33,500 ft four 0.303-in machine-guns



Photos

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On Display

(C) = Cockpit only exhibit. (F) = Fuselage only exhibit. (R) = Remains of an aircraft.

Variant Location
Gladiator Mk II Imperial War Museum, Duxford
Gladiator Mk ? (R) Jet Age Museum
Gladiator Mk II (R) Royal Air Force Museum, London
Gladiator Mk I Royal Air Force Museum, Cosford
Gladiator Mk I Shuttleworth

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